What are the impact factors of academic journals and what are the determining factors?

The impact factor (IF) of journals is a quantitative indicator of the influence of journals. That is an average of each published papers are cited number, it is actually published in a certain number of times a year all of the source is cited journal published two years ago in the journal, with the previous two years the number of journal papers published full source Ratio.

Impact factor is not the most objective criterion for evaluating the influence of journals. Generally speaking, the higher the impact factor, the greater the influence of the journal.

For some comprehensive or major research fields, the citation rate is relatively high because of the wide range of research fields. For example, journals of biology and chemistry are generally more likely to have a higher influence.

Although the impact factor can characterize the academic quality to a certain extent, the relationship between the impact factor and academic quality is not linearly proportional . For example, it cannot be said that a journal with an impact factor of 5.0 is definitely better than a journal with an impact factor of 2.0. It does not have the function of accurately and quantitatively evaluating academic quality.

Some domestic scientific research institutions often use cumulative impact factors or individual impact factors as quantitative standards when conducting research performance evaluations. Some researchers may not be promoted to titles or award bonuses due to a 0.1 point difference in impact factors. This approach is absolutely absolute Is not desirable.

From the calculation formula, although the impact factor is only directly related to the number of citations and the number of papers, in fact, it is closely related to many factors. There are five main factors that determine the size of the impact factor:

(1) Thesis factor . Such as the publication time lag of the paper, the length of the paper, the type and the number of collaborators, etc. Publications with a shorter publication time lag are easier to obtain a higher impact factor. If the publication period of the publication is long, a considerable part of the citations are not counted due to the aging of the literature (more than 2 years), that is, they are not involved in the calculation of the impact factor, thereby reducing the impact factor.

A large amount of statistical data shows that if the published paper is a hot topic, and the length of the paper is short and published quickly, the citation rate will quickly reach a peak, which will cause the impact factor of the journal to rise rapidly, and then rapidly decline; publish complete research papers The journals have been cited for a long time, and the impact factor has been increased for a long time. There are also data showing that the average number of authors of a paper is significantly positively correlated with the total citation frequency of the paper.

(2) Journal factors. Such as journal size (number of papers published), type, etc. When calculating the impact factor, the number of published papers only counts the number of papers, newsletters, and reviews, but does not count reviews, letters, newsletters, and other frequently cited articles. Based on empirical judgment, the number of journals published is closely related to the impact factor and the total frequency of citations.

In most cases, journals with a small number of papers are likely to get high impact factors, and the impact factors of these journals will fluctuate greatly from year to year; while journals with a large number of papers and a long history of publication tend to get higher Total citation frequency.

In addition, it is also closely related to other citation indicators such as: the annual index, the half-life of journal citations, the number of regional distribution, the ratio of funded papers, and the scope and circulation of journals. The size and structure of journals will cause different impact factors of journals. Generally speaking, the larger the scale of the same type of journals, the larger the impact factors of these journals in general; the more “hot” topics or “hot” professional articles contained in the journals, the more they are always cited. The higher the frequency, the greater the impact factor of such journals.

(3) Subject factors. For example, the number of journals in different disciplines, the average number of references, the half-life of citations, etc. will all have an impact on the journal’s impact factor and total citation frequency. The impact factor and total citation frequency of journals are based on the relationship between the citations of the paper and the number of citations.

The number of citations in a subject depends on two main factors: the first is the development characteristics of each subject; the second is the proportion of the journals of the subject in the source journals of the database. Generally speaking, the more source journals of a discipline, the greater the total citation frequency and impact factor of the discipline journal. These two factors determine the imbalance of the subject impact factor and the total citation frequency distribution.

In addition, the impact factor is also affected by the professional social coverage of the subject involved in the journal. If a sci-tech journal has a very small professional social coverage and there are few similar journals, then its impact factor is not It may be very high.

Because different disciplines have different internal scientific research rules, the situations in which the scientific research results of others need to be cited are different when doing research. These differences will affect the size of the impact factor in at least two aspects. On the one hand, the difference is how much other people’s work needs to be cited, and the other is the time of cite others’ work. Since the impact factor is generally calculated only based on the literature cited in the journals in the past two years, it can be seen that the ranking results based on the distribution of citation years in the past two years are also consistent with the ranking results of the journals by using the impact factor method. It also shows that the impact factor cannot correctly reflect the influence of journals in different disciplines.

Due to historical reasons, the construction and development of different disciplines in a country are not balanced, even in different branches of the same discipline. Some disciplines are small in scale, but there are many researchers engaged in this discipline, and the capital investment in this discipline is also large, and there are more related discipline magazines, which will form a scale advantage. And often those smaller-scale disciplines do not have this scale advantage, so the impact factor and total citation frequency of such journals will not be high.

In terms of the development speed of the subject scale, different subjects are divided into “cold” and “hot”. “Hot” subjects have developed rapidly due to the needs of the times. Articles of this subject will have a high citation rate during the period of rapid development of their scale; while “unpopular” subjects are just the opposite. However, this distinction between “cold” and “hot” is often not due to the development needs of science itself, but is often caused by economic, social and other non-scientific factors.

There are also some disciplines that contain many popular topics. Although these “hot” topics have high citation rates, they do not have much scientific value. According to the above analysis, it can be considered that this kind of difference in the citation rate of papers caused only by the size of the subject and the speed of development, or the difference in the size of the impact factors of related journals and institutions, resulting in the importance of The difference in ranking is not caused by the development of the scientific wooden body, but by some other economic, historical and social non-scientific factors. Therefore, this kind of evaluation of small-scale or “cold” major disciplines is extremely What is unfair is also unreasonable.

(4) Retrieval system factors , Such as the sources of journals participating in the statistics, the statistical scope of citation entries, etc. For a specific publication, in the retrieval systems of China and foreign countries, due to the large differences in the composition of the journal groups included in it, the calculated impact factor values ​​are quite different, and the same publication has a large difference in the retrieval systems of different languages. Significantly different impact factors and total citations.

(5) The influence of celebrity effect . Celebrity effect is often manifested as: On the one hand, people often cite celebrity articles to increase the authority of their articles, even when there are other documents that are more suitable for their articles; On the one hand, articles signed with celebrity names or articles recommended by celebrities are easily published in so-called high-end magazines, and are therefore easily included in SCI or CSCD. Sometimes the articles do not have celebrity scientific research results, but in order to be able to The names of celebrities are signed in the publications, so excessive emphasis on the citation or inclusion situation will bring artificial bias to the total citation frequency and impact factor of the article.

Chinese Universities Agency number for Chinese government scholarship

Chinese Universities Agency Numbers list:

  • Agency number of XINJIANG MEDICAL UNIVERSITY 10760
  • Agency number of The Southwestern University of Finance and Economics 10651
  • Agency number of LANZHOU JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY 10732
  • Agency number of SHIHEZI UNIVERSITY 10759
  • Agency number of XIDIAN UNIVERSITY 10701
  • Agency number of SHAANXI NORMAL UNIVERSITY 10718
  • Agency number of XINJIANG UNIVERSITY 10755
  • Agency number of LANZHOU UNIVERSITY 10730
  • Agency number of XINJIANG NORMAL UNIVERSITY 10762
  • Agency number of Shanghai Jiao Tong University SJTU 10248
  • Agency number of RENMIN UNIVERSITY OF CHINA 10002
  • Agency number of China Foreign Affairs University 10040
  • Agency number of Beijing Institute of Technology 10007
  • Agency number of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications 10013
  • Agency number of University of Science and Technology Beijing 10008
  • Agency number of Shanghai University 10280
  • Agency number of Beijing Univ. of Chemical Tech. 10010
  • Agency number of TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY 10003
  • Agency number of Beihang University (BUAA) 10006
  • Agency number of BEIJING JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY 10004
  • Agency number for Beijing Forestry University 10022
  • Agency number for China Agricultural Univ (CAU) 10019
  • Agency number of Beijing Normal University 10027
  • Agency number of Capital Normal University 10028
  • Agency number of Beijing Foreign Studies University 10030
  • Agency number of Central Univ. of Finance and Economics 10034
  • Agency number of Central Conservatory of Music 10045
  • Agency number of Beijing International Studies University 10031
  • Agency number of Univ. of International Business and Economics 10038
  • Agency number for Capital Univ. of Business and Economics 10036
  • Agency number of Beijing Sports University 10043
  • Agency number of Dalian Medical University 10161
  • Agency number of Dalian Univ. of Foreign Languages 10172
  • Agency number of Liaoning Normal University 10165
  • Agency number of Jilin University 10183
  • Agency number of Harbin Institute of Technology 10213
  • Agency number of China Medical University 10159
  • Agency number of Jilin Normal University 10203
  • Agency number of Tongji University 10247
  • Agency number of Fudan University 10246
  • Agency number of Heilongjiang University 10212
  • Agency number of Heilongjiang University 10210
  • Agency number of Jiamusi University 10222
  • Agency number of China Univ. of Mining and Technology 10290
  • Agency number of Harbin Normal University 10231
  • Agency number of Harbin Engineering University 10217
  • Agency number of Anhui University 10357
  • Agency number of China Academy of Art 10355
  • Agency number of Hefei Univ. of Technology 10359
  • Agency number of Xiamen University 10384
  • Agency number of Ocean University of China 10423
  • Agency number of Soochow University 10285
  • Agency number of Donghua University 10255
  • Agency number of East China Univ. of Science and Technology 10251
  • Agency number of The University of Shanghai for Science and Technology 10252
  • Agency number of Shanghai International Studies University 10271
  • Agency number of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine 10268
  • Agency number of East China Normal University 10269
  • Agency number of Shanghai Normal University 10270
  • Agency number of Shanghai University of Finance and Economics (SUFE) 10272
  • Agency number of Shanghai University of Sport 10277
  • Agency number of Shanghai Conservatory of Music 10278
  • Agency number of Nanjing University 10284
  • Agency number of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine 10026
  • Agency number of Southeast University 10286
  • Agency number of Jiangnan University 10295
  • Agency number of XIAMEN UNIVERSITY 10384
  • Agency number of Hohai University 10294
  • Agency number of Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics 10287
  • Agency number for Nanjing Agricultural University 10307
  • Agency number of Central Academy of Fine Arts 10047
  • Agency number for Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology 10288
  • Agency number of Beijing Film Academy 10050
  • Agency number of Beijing Language and Culture University 10032
  • Agency number of Peking University 10001
  • Agency number of The China University of Political Science and Law 10053
  • Agency number for North China Electric Power University 10054
  • Agency number of Central University For Nationalities 10052
  • Agency number of Northeast Agriculture University 10224
  • Agency number for Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology 10300
  • Agency number of The Central Academy of Drama 10048
  • Agency number of Tianjin University 10056
  • Agency number of Capital Institute for Physical Educations 10029
  • Agency number of Tianjin Medical University 10062
  • Agency number of Tianjin Univ. of Science and Technology 10057
  • Agency number of Tianjin Univ. of Traditional Chinese Medicine10063
  • Agency number of Tianjin Normal University 10065
  • Agency number of Tianjin Foreign Studies Univ. (TFSU) 10068
  • Agency number of Nankai University 10055
  • Agency number of Tianjin Univ. of Technology and Education 10066
  • Agency number of Liaoning University 10140
  • Agency number of Dalian Maritime University 10151
  • Agency number of Northeastern University 10145
  • Agency number of Dalian Univ. of Technology 10141
  • Agency number of Nanjing Univ of Chinese Medicine 10315
  • Agency number of Nanchang University 10403
  • Agency number of Zhejiang Sci-Tech University 10338
  • Agency number of Zhejiang Univ of Technology 10337
  • Agency number of Anhui Normal University 10370
  • Agency number of Zhejiang Normal University 10345
  • Agency number of Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute 10408
  • Agency number of Wuhan University of Technology 10497
  • Agency number of Zhongnan Univ. of Economics and Law 10520
  • Agency number of Huazhong Agricultural University 10504
  • Agency number of Huazhong Univ of Science and Technology 10487
  • Agency number of Wuhan University 10486
  • Agency number of Guangxi University 10593
  • Agency number of Guangxi University for Nationalities 10608
  • Agency number of Huazhong Normal University 10511
  • Agency number of Xiangtan University 10530
  • Agency number of Zhejiang University 10335
  • Agency number of Zhengzhou University 10459
  • Agency number of Shenyang Normal University 10166
  • Agency number of Yanbian University 10184
  • Agency number of Beihua University 10201
  • Agency number of NORTHWEST NORMAL UNIVERSITY 10736
  • Agency number of Dongbei Univ of Finance and Economics 10173
  • Agency number of Changchun Univ. of Science and Technology 10186
  • Agency number of Northeast Normal University 10200
  • Agency number of Chongqing University 10611
  • Agency number of Southwest University 10635
  • Agency number of Shandong Normal University 10445
  • Agency number of University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) 10358
  • Agency number of Hunan University, Changsha 10532
  • Agency number of Sichuan University 10610
  • Agency number of China Univesity of Geosciences (Wuhan) 10491
  • Agency number of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 10542
  • Agency number of Shantou University 10560
  • Agency number of Central South University, Changsha 10533
  • Agency number of Guangxi Medical University 10598
  • Agency number of South China University of Technology 10561
  • Agency number of South China Normal University 10574
  • Agency number of South China Agricultural University 10564
  • Agency number of Sunyat-Sen University 10558
  • Agency number of CHANG’AN UNIVERSITY 10710
  • Agency number of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine  10572
  • Agency number of Guangxi Normal University 10602
  • Agency number of Ningbo University 11646
  • Agency number of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China 10614
  • Agency number of Southwest Jiaotong University 10613
  • Agency number of NINGXIA UNIVERSITY 10749
  • Agency number of GUIZHOU UNIVERSITY 10657
  • Agency number of YUNNAN UNIVERSITY 10673
  • Agency number of Chongqing University of Posts and telecommunications 10617
  • Agency number of XI’AN JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY 10698
  • Agency number of YUNNAN NORMAL UNIVERSITY 10681
  • Agency number of NORTHWEST A&F UNIVERSITY 10712
  • Agency number of Shandong University 10422

Chinese Universities Without Application Fee For CSC 2021

  1. The Dalian University of Technology, Liaoning state, China
  2. UESTC (University of Electronic Science & Technology), China
  3. Wuhan University of technology, city Wuhan, Hebei state, China
  4. Southwest University
  5. CQUPT (Chongqing University of Post & Telecommunications), China
  6. Wuhan University, Hebei state, Wuhan city, China
  7. Harbin University of science and technology.
  8. Yanshan University,
  9. HUAZHONG AGRI. No Application Processing Fee
  10. NORTHWEST AGRI. No Application Processing Fee
  11. SHANDONG university. No Application Processing Fee
  12. Northeast Normal University.
  13. Northwest A & F University.
  14. Shaanxi Normal University.
  15. CQU (Chongqing University), China Application processing fee is not required
  16. Tianjin University.
  17. Zhejiang Sci-Tech University.
  18. HEU, (Harbin Engineering University), China
  19. CNU (Capital Normal University) China
  20. NANJING AGRICULTURE, Jiangsu state, city Nanjing
  21. NWPU, Shaanxi State, China
  22. Sichuan University, China
  23. The Renmin University of China.
  24. SJTU (Shanghai Jiao Tong University), China
  25. Fujian University
  26. Hainan University
  27. Guilin University of electronic Science and Technology

Policies can be changed each year. For further inquiries directly contact  to iso.

ANSO international awards for Young Talents in China

Brief Description

Organization: Alliance of International Science Organizations (ANSO)

Course Level: Master and PhD

Award: RMB 6000

Access Mode: Online

Number of Awards: Up to 500

Nationality: International

The award can be taken in China


Eligible Countries: International students (non-Chinese citizens) are eligible to apply for the grant.

Acceptable Course or Subjects: Master 207and PhD degree will be awarded in any subject offered by the university

Admissible Criteria: To be eligible, the applicants must meet all the following criteria:

Not hold Chinese citizenship

Be proficient in English or Chinese

For master’s program applicants: be born after 1 January 1991 (inclusive)

For PhD program applicants: be born after 1 January 1986 (inclusive)

Meet the admission criteria for international students of USTC/UCAS

Not take up other assignments during the period of his/her scholarship.


Faculty list of universities









































SCIENCES (only Ph.D. Programs )












Several journal categories by Chinese

Common types of journals generally include national journals, provincial journals, academic journals, non-academic journals, CN journals, ISSN journals, CSCD journals, scientific papers statistical source journals, SCI journals, etc. The following is a brief introduction.

 Generally speaking, “national” journals are journals sponsored by the Party Central Committee, the State Council and their affiliated departments, or by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, democratic parties and national people’s organizations, and the journals sponsored by national first-level professional societies. . In addition, publications clearly marked as “national journals” and “core journals” can also be regarded as national publications. For example, “Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine” is a national journal.

    So what are provincial periodicals? In fact, provincial periodicals are journals sponsored by provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and their subordinate ministries, commissions, departments, and bureaus, as well as journals sponsored by various colleges and universities. For example, “Shanxi Medical Journal” is a provincial journal.

    There are two classification methods for journals, academic journals and non-academic journals. Academic journals publish mainly academic papers, while non-academic journals publish documents, reports, speeches, experiences, knowledge, etc. that can only be used as academic research materials rather than articles. Since the selection of “Summary” is based on a large number of articles, a large number of articles and a large number of citations, it does not emphasize the boundary between academic journals and non-academic journals, so naturally there is no strict distinction. “Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine” is a relatively advanced academic journal.

    ISSN publications refer to publications registered outside the territory of China and issued to the public at home and abroad. The ISSN letter is marked before the issue number of this type of publication, which is also easy to identify.

    What are CN publications? The so-called CN publications refer to publications registered in China and publicly issued in China. The serial numbers of such publications are marked with CN letters, and people are used to calling them CN publications.

    Chinese Science Citation Database source journal, referred to as CSCD journal. The Chinese Science Citation Database is divided into a core library and an extended library. The source journals of the core library have undergone strict selection and are authoritative and representative core journals in various disciplines. The source journals of the extended library have also been selected on a large scale and are among the best journals in various disciplines in China. Core library journals: 669 types ; extended library journals: 378 types (dynamic).
The source journals of scientific paper statistics, also known as the core journals of China’s science and technology, are important scientific journals in various disciplines selected by the China Institute of Science and Technology Information after strict quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    SCI “Science Citation Index”, is a world-renowned journal document retrieval tool published by the American Institute of Scientific Information. Select journal sources through its strict selection criteria and evaluation procedures. SCI is divided into SCI and SCI-E from the number of source journals. Under normal circumstances, the journals indexed by SCI are of higher grade, but sometimes it is found that the impact factor of journals included by SCIE may be higher than that of SCI. SCI is a core journal, and all articles are included in SCI; SCI-E is an extended version of journals, not all articles are included in SCI.

7 Types Of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is arguably the most amazing innovation to date. Although all kinds of artificial intelligence products have appeared on the market, this is only the tip of the iceberg. Artificial intelligence has been integrated into our lives, even if it is still in the early stages of development, it has brought a revolutionary impact to society.

With the rapid development of artificial intelligence and the continuous enhancement of its performance, people’s pursuit of artificial intelligence has reached a level of obsession. In addition, the changes that artificial intelligence has brought to different industries have made business leaders and the public mistakenly believe that we are about to reach the peak of artificial intelligence research and maximize the potential of artificial intelligence. But what is the future of artificial intelligence? On the long road of artificial intelligence research, in order not to blindly and not get lost, we need to understand clearly the types of artificial intelligence and what capabilities existing artificial intelligence have.

The purpose of artificial intelligence is to make machines imitate human functions, so the degree to which artificial intelligence systems can replicate human abilities is used as a criterion for judging the level/type of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence that can perform more human-like functions and has the same level of proficiency will be regarded as a more evolved type of artificial intelligence, while artificial intelligence with limited functions and performance will be regarded as a simpler and more advanced type Lower type.

Based on this standard, artificial intelligence usually has two classification methods. One is to classify based on the similarity of the thinking of machines and humans, that is, to imitate the ability of humans to “think” or even “feel”. According to this standard classification, there are four types of artificial intelligence: reaction machines, limited memory machines, intelligent artificial intelligence and autonomous artificial intelligence.

1. reaction machine

This is the most primitive artificial intelligence system, and their capabilities are extremely limited. They mimic the human brain’s response to various stimuli. These machines have no memory capabilities. This means that they cannot “accumulate” previously acquired experience to guide current operations, that is, these machines have no “learning” ability. These machines can only be used to automatically respond to one or more sets of inputs. A typical example of a reactive artificial intelligence machine is IBM’s Deep Blue, which defeated the chess master Garry Kasparov in 1997.

2. Limited memory machine

In addition to the function of a reaction machine, a machine with limited memory (or limited memory) can also learn decisions from historical data. All current artificial intelligence systems, such as those that use deep learning, learn through a large amount of training data stored in memory, and finally form a reference model to solve future problems. For example, image recognition AI trains thousands of pictures and tags to recognize scanned objects. When the trained artificial intelligence model scans other images, it will label the new image according to the “learning experience”. As the training samples increase, the accuracy of AI recognition becomes higher and higher.

Almost all artificial intelligence applications today, from chatbots, virtual assistants and even self-driving cars, are based on artificial intelligence with limited memory.

3. Intelligent artificial intelligence

Today the first two types of artificial intelligence already exist and are widely used. Then the next stage of AI development will appear thinking consciousness. Although this is just a concept, researchers are innovating. Intelligent artificial intelligence is the higher level of artificial intelligence system. Thinking-conscious artificial intelligence can better interact with each other by identifying and understanding the needs, emotions, beliefs, and thinking processes of the other party. At present, the field of emotional intelligence has emerged, but to realize intelligent artificial intelligence, it is inseparable from the common development of related disciplines and interdisciplinary fields.

4. Autonomous artificial intelligence

This is the highest stage of artificial intelligence development. Self-aware AI, literally speaking, is an artificial intelligence that has evolved to be very similar to the human brain, and even developed autonomous consciousness. Perhaps the creation of this type of artificial intelligence, even if it does not take hundreds of years, will take decades to achieve. This will become the ultimate goal of all artificial intelligence research.

This type of artificial intelligence can not only understand and evoke the emotions of the people interacting with it, but also have its own emotions, needs, beliefs and potential desires. And this type of artificial intelligence is exactly what the doomsdayers worry about. The development of AI autonomous consciousness may promote the progress of human civilization, and may also bring disaster to society. Because once artificial intelligence has autonomous consciousness, it is very likely to easily acquire human wisdom and plan or even take over human beings by itself.

Another classification system is to divide artificial intelligence technology into artificial narrow intelligence (ANI), general artificial intelligence (AGI) and artificial super intelligence (ASI).

5. Artificial narrow intelligence

This type of artificial intelligence represents the existing artificial intelligence, including the most complex and capable artificial intelligence to date. Artificial narrow intelligence refers to an artificial intelligence system that can only use human-like functions to autonomously perform specific tasks. These machines can only do well-programmed things, so their capabilities are very limited. According to the former classification system, these systems correspond to all reactive and limited memory AIs. Even artificial intelligence that uses complex machine learning and deep learning belongs to ANI.

6. General Artificial Intelligence

General artificial intelligence refers to the ability of artificial intelligence to learn, perceive, understand and work exactly like humans. These systems can complete a variety of tasks independently, greatly reducing the time required for training. By copying various functions of human beings, artificial intelligence systems have the same capabilities as humans.

7. Artificial Super Intelligence

The development of artificial superintelligence may mark the pinnacle of artificial intelligence research, because AGI will become the most capable form of intelligence on earth to date. ASI has more powerful memory, faster data processing, analysis and decision-making capabilities. In addition to replicating the multi-faceted intelligence of humans, ASI will do everything very well (even beyond human level). The so-called “singularity” scene will appear in the development of AGI and ASI. Although the potential of artificial intelligence is very attractive, they may also threaten our survival and at least have a disruptive impact on our lifestyle.

If super artificial intelligence is really realized one day, what will our world look like? Artificial intelligence is still in its infancy, and there is still a long way to go to achieve this goal. For those who hold negative views, it is too early to worry about the emergence of “singularities”, and perhaps it will never happen-and there is still a long time to study the safety of artificial intelligence. For those who are optimistic about artificial intelligence, it can be said that “the road is long and I will search up and down”, and the future of artificial intelligence is even more exciting.

Qualitative research and quantitative research

Qualitative research and quantitative research Connections:

  (1) Both qualitative research and quantitative research belong to sociological methods. Qualitative research is mainly made cooked a expert noted the situation and the business based on personal intuition, experience, based on the study of past and present continuation of the situation and the latest information materials, the nature of the object of study, characteristics, changes of development to make judgments This method is to conduct research and judgment, put forward preliminary opinions, and then synthesize them as the main basis for predicting future conditions and development trends. Quantitative research refers to the use of modern mathematical methods to process relevant data, statistical data, establish various predictive models reflecting the regular relationship between relevant variables, and use mathematical models to calculate the various indicators and numerical values ​​of the research object a way.

  (2) Qualitative research is the basic premise of quantitative research, and quantitative research is the further deepening of qualitative research. It must be pointed out here that although qualitative research requires relatively low mathematical knowledge, there is no distinction between the two research methods, which is better and the other cannot be completely separated. In comparison, quantitative research is more scientific because it uses advanced mathematics knowledge, while qualitative research is a bit rougher, but this method has a wider application range and is suitable for general investors and economic workers because it is based on data. It is more suitable when the researcher’s mathematical knowledge is not sufficient or the researcher is relatively weak.

  The difference between qualitative research and quantitative research

  1. Different concepts

  (1) Qualitative research means that researchers use historical review, document analysis, interviews, observations, and participation in experience to obtain educational research materials, and use non-quantitative methods to analyze them , Methods of obtaining research conclusions.

  (2) The results of quantitative research are usually represented by a large amount of data. The research design is to enable researchers to make effective explanations through comparison and analysis of these data.

   Different theoretical foundations

  (1) Qualitative research is mainly a kind of value judgment, which is based on the humanistic methodology of hermeneutics, phenomenology and constructivist theories. The main point of view is that social phenomena are not dominated by causality like natural phenomena, and social phenomena are fundamentally different from natural phenomena.

  (2) Quantitative research is a factual judgment, which is based on the methodology of positivism. Positivism originates from empirical philosophy, and its main point is: social phenomena are objective reality that exist independently, and are not subject to human will. In the evaluation process, the subject and the object are entities that are isolated from each other, and there must be inherent logical causality within and between things. Quantitative evaluation is to find, determine and verify these quantitative relationships.

Importance of Spss

① The operation is simple, no programming

If you have not been exposed to statistical software before, SPSS is undoubtedly quite suitable. As one of the most widely used professional statistical software in the world, analysis results can be obtained only by menu operation. If you don’t have time to learn by yourself, SPSS can help you get started with data analysis in a short time.

② It has a wide range of applications.

For liberal arts majors, SPSS plays a role in many places, especially in the field of questionnaire analysis, SPSS is a unique existence. The entry of questionnaires, the reliability, validity test, T test, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, etc. in the questionnaire, SPSS is easy to grasp.

For science and engineering majors, SPSS can handle single-factor, multi-factor analysis of variance, multiple comparisons, and comparison of sample means involved in experimental design.

③ Powerful functions, advancing with the times

For decades, SPSS has been widely used in business intelligence, biomedicine, market research and other fields, providing users with functions such as data sorting, charting, and result display, which are flexible, clear and intuitive.

SPSS has strong compatibility and keeps pace with the times. STATA, SAS, R, Python, and databases are all available for docking. SPSS can call this function of Python, did you know?